30 Sept 2022

Father Joseph Maskell : A Narcissist, a Sociopath or a Psychopath?

Who was father  Maskell?

Anthony Joseph Maskell was a previous chaplain at Archbishop Keough High School in Baltimore, Maryland who also served as chaplain for the Maryland State Police, the Baltimore County Police Department (BCPD), the Maryland National Guard, and the Air National Guard where he was a lieutenant colonel and several other schools during his career.

He has been accused of sexual abuse against female students at Keough High School and also forced an altar boy at St. Clement Church, Charles Franz, to drink wine and sexually abused him. Approximately 30 people claimed that Maskell sexually abused them.

One of the main victims of sexual abuse Jean Hargadon Wehner allegedly told Catherine Cesnik, a well-liked nun among the kids, about the abuse around the conclusion of the school year in 1969. On November 7, 1969, Cesnik vanished, and her body wasn't found until January 3, 1970. 20-year-old Joyce Malecki also vanished in a similar area four days after she vanished. "You see what happens when you say horrible things about people", Maskell allegedly told Wehner as he led her to Cesnik's decaying remains in a forested area not long after Cesnik vanished.

What are personality disorders and which one did he have?

As we got to know via the famous seven-episode Netflix documentary series "The Keepers" Maskell led such a prestigious life while committing heinous crimes alongside because of complicit people, who ignored the abuse and kept putting Maskell in positions of authority. 

Maskell can be called a Monster in layman's language. To be more specific about his personality type, in my opinion, he definitely suffered from some serious personality disorder that enabled him to perform horrendous acts behind closed doors and a charming persona. As he had a very soothing and charismatic guise as reported not just by regular people but also by his victims, he has to be somewhere in the cluster-b spectrum of personality disorders. Personality disorders may result in recurring, chronic, and detrimental thought, emotion, and behavior patterns just like Maskell had. 

Let's take a look at personality disorders first.

Cluster A, cluster B, and cluster C are the three primary clusters of personality disorders. Cluster B has four personality disorders, including: 

  1. Antisocial personality disorder(ASPD)
  2. Borderline personality disorder(BPD)
  3. Histrionic personality disorder(HPD)
  4. Narcissistic personality disorder(NPD)

Nobody is ever formally diagnosed as a sociopath or a psychopath; instead, an antisocial personality disorder is a diagnosis given to people who are sociopathic and psychopathic. So, we will discuss the NPD and ASPD traits here and will analyze the personality of Father Maskel on the basis of information shared in the documentary, to match with them to see where he fits in the spectrum.

Narcissistic personality disorder

This personality condition makes its sufferers feel superior to other people. These signs include:

  • Strong disapproval of critique
  • Heightened sense of self-importance 
  • Obsession with grandiose achievement ideals
  • Too dependent on praise
  • Feeling overly entitled
  • People who suffer from this disease frequently display a lack of empathy and may take advantage of close relationships to enhance their self-image.
From the statements of victims in the documentary, we got to know that he had all of these characteristics.

My Youtube Videos on Narcissism:-  

 Subscribe https://www.youtube.com/@fdamh_official/videos Antisocial personality disorder

People who suffer from antisocial personality disorder frequently disregard and violate the rights of others. For personal advantage, deceit and manipulation are used. To obtain these benefits for themselves, they could be rude to other people, tell lies, or commit fraud. They can also be more inclined to commit theft. They typically don't feel bad about what they did, though. Those who suffer from antisocial personality disorder are also more likely to develop a drug or alcohol addiction

A pervasive pattern of disdain for other people's rights that has existed at least since puberty is one of the signs of antisocial personality disorder. It manifests as actions like:

  • Disregard for laws and social norms
  • Absence of regret or guilt
  • Lying repeatedly
  • Impulsivity and carelessness
  • Aggressiveness
  • Disregard for other people's safety
From the statements of victims in the documentary, we got to know that he had all of these characteristics, So there is a high possibility that he had ASPD

The term "sociopath" is sometimes used to emphasize the antisocial, rule-breaking aspects of antisocial personality disorder, while the term "psychopath" is sometimes used to convey the internal experience of lack of remorse—pleasure in "getting over on" or inflicting pain upon someone—and other emotional deficits. Also according to Clinical Psychologist Dr. Ramani, Sociopaths are made by socio-environmental factors whereas Psychopaths are born.

Sociopathic Traits

Now, under ASPD, let's see how sociopathic people are:

People who are categorized as sociopaths under the ASPD  are characterized by attributes like:-

  • Make it clear that they don't care how other people feel.
  • Act irrationally and impulsively.
  • Prone to fury and anger outbursts.
  • Recognize what they're doing, but excuse themselves for it.
  • Cannot continue to lead a typical life of work and family.
  • Can develop emotional bonds, although it's challenging.
From the statements of victims in the documentary, we got to know that he had all of these characteristics except for the last two points.  He had a wonderful career and social image. Though he had good professional relationships and confided in his brother who was in law enforcement, this relationship was not on an emotional basis but rather on a very material level. A consistent child abuser cannot have any way of loving someone. So I believe he was not a complete sociopath.

Psychopathic Traits

People who are categorized as psychopaths under the ASPD  are characterized by attributes like:-

  • Act concerned.
  • Show cold-hearted actions. 
  • Fail to understand the suffering of others.
  • Have superficial and phony connections.
  • Live a normal life while hiding their unlawful activity.
  • Fail to develop real emotional connections.
  • Have unique ways of loving people.

From the statements of victims and other information shared in the documentary, we got to know that he had all of these characteristics except the last one because a consistent child abuser cannot have any way of loving someone.

Also, Sociopaths are considered to have a weak conscience, whereas psychopaths can lack conscience altogether. In my opinion, there has to be a complete absence of conscience and empathy to repeatedly hurt innocent kids just for pleasure or to commit cold-blooded murders.


Hence from the above discussion, we may conclude that he probably had ASPD along with narcissistic traits like an outer charm, grandiosity, entitlement, and lack of empathy. He can be said as more of a psychopath than a sociopath because he shows almost all of the traits of psychopathy whereas lacks a lot of traits of sociopathy. So he was a psychopath with narcissism either in the form of NPD or just traits. I believe it was in the form of NPD, as it is said that malignant narcissists have narcissism in the form of personality disorder and some overlapping traits with ASPD.

Note:- This qualitative analytical study on Maskell is purely based on the information shared by the 7-episode Netflix documentary "The Keepers which was released in 2017.

Watch the video on this analysis on my youtube channel. Please subscribe and hit the bell notification to receive the update of new video when I publish it online.



Bhambhani, Lavina & Prakash, Shakti & Tripathi, Mahesh. (2021). Psychopathy and Sociopathy: A    Modern Understanding of Antisocial Personality Disorder (Review of Literature). 

Hollman, L., PhD. (2021, April 5). Narcissist vs. Sociopath vs. Psychopath: What’s the Difference? Laurie Hollman, Ph.D. Retrieved September 29, 2022, from https://lauriehollmanphd.com/2020/05/18/narcissist-vs-sociopath-vs-psychopath-whats-the-difference/#:%7E:text=The%20main%20difference%20between%20the%20narcissist%20and%20the,maltreatment%20is%20verbal%20not%20physically%20aggressive%20or%20violent.evy, J. C. (2017, August 28). What Is a Sociopath? Key Traits, Causes & Current Treatments. Dr. Axe. Retrieved September 29, 2022, from https://draxe.com/health/what-is-a-sociopath/

Meadows-Fernandez, R. A. (2018, February 28). What Are Cluster B Personality Disorders? Healthline. Retrieved September 29, 2022, from https://www.healthline.com/health/cluster-b-personality-disorders

Netflix Netherlands – Watch TV Programmes Online, Watch Films Online. (n.d.). Retrieved September 29, 2022, from https://www.netflix.com

Sociopath vs. Psychopath: Characteristics and Differences. (2022, August 29). Verywell Health. Retrieved September 29, 2022, from https://www.verywellhealth.com/sociopath-vs-psychopath-characteristics-and-differences-5193369#:%7E:text=Conscience%20A%20key%20difference%20between%20people%20considered%20sociopaths,a%20weak%20conscience%2C%20psychopaths%20can%20lack%20conscience%20altogether.

undefined [MedCircle]. (2018, June 26). Narcissist, Psychopath, or Sociopath: How to Spot the Differences [Video]. YouTube. Retrieved September 29, 2022, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6dv8zJiggBs

undefined [MedCircle]. (2019, May 5). Relationships, Narcissists, Psychopaths, & Sociopaths 101 [Video]. YouTube. Retrieved September 29, 2022, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_qPuyX1TQKo

Viruet, P. (2017, May 25). Netflix’s Latest True Crime Docuseries Will Haunt You Forever. Retrieved September 29, 2022, from https://www.vice.com/en/article/8x4pqp/netflixs-latest-true-crime-docuseries-will-haunt-you-forever

Wikipedia contributors. (2022, August 26). Joseph Maskell. Wikipedia. Retrieved September 29, 2022, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Maskell

William E Lorri. (n.d.). “The Keepers” fact check. In www.archbalt.org. Archbishop of Baltimore. https://www.archbalt.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/AoB-FactCheck-infographic-11.pdf

22 Sept 2022

What is anger?


What is anger:-

Anger is a significant and fundamental human emotion that we all occasionally feel. Basically, fear, greed, and desire are the root causes of anger.

  • Anger is a natural reaction to threats to our safety and wellbeing, both actual and perceived.
  • Anger develops when a person tries to hide other emotions, such as fear, from themselves.
  • When our expectations are not met, we become angry, which is once more a form of lust or threat.

Science of anger:- 

Anger makes people ready to fight because it is linked to the sympathetic nervous system's "fight, flight, or freeze" response. However, striking is not always a part of the fighting.

The amygdala in our brains sounds the alarm whenever we perceive a threat to our safety (physical, emotional, social, financial, etc.) or wellbeing. This surge of testosterone and adrenaline, two vital hormones that prime our bodies for physical aggression, occurs as a result. In addition to the amygdala, the prefrontal cortex is also stimulated by the anger trigger. This part of the brain regulates reasoning and judgment, keeping us from reacting irrationally to a situation.

When this area is triggered in reaction to a perceived threat, catecholamine neurotransmitters epinephrine and norepinephrine, also referred to as adrenaline and noradrenaline, are stimulated to release.

These hormones prepare  our body to act by:

  • Increasing respiration, blood pressure, and heart rate.
  • Clenching muscles
  • Body temperature rising
  • Increasing the flow of blood to certain body parts, such as the face, arms, legs, hands, and feet (making them appear red).
  • Focusing on the issue that led to the outburst of rage.

Is anger good or bad or both?

Scriptures and science have both occasionally revealed that controlling our anger in a healthy way is beneficial to us. If we can't control our anger response, the issue is unlikely to become better over time. When we sit down and discuss what or who instigated our rage, anger is acting in the proper manner. Studies show that managing our anger in a healthy way has advantages. Holding onto anger, however, is known to have a harmful effect on some individuals and may even lead to despair. Chronic fury that persists over time might lead to high blood pressure in the long run and possibly heart disease.

Of course, harboring resentment too frequently or easily might eventually harm both your physical and mental health. The immune system's ability to operate as well as the neurons in the regions of the brain that regulate judgment and short-term memory can be harmed by anger's protracted release of stress chemicals.

Why do people get angry?

Anger and personality traits may be related. Additionally, the following attitudes and behaviors can lead to anger:-

  • The belief that one's privileges and rights surpass those of others is known as entitlement.
  • Paying attention to outside circumstances (such as a partner's behavior).
  • External emotion regulation, which entails seeking to control emotions by managing one's surroundings;
  • Spherical effect outside oneself (believing well-being is controlled by sources outside of oneself)
  • Failure to explore alternative opinions (viewing different perspectives as threats)
  • Limited capacity for discomfort
  • An intolerance for ambiguity
  • Excessive focus on fault
  • A flimsy ego

How to deal with anger?

Lord Krishna urges Arjuna to suppress his anger at the very beginning of the Gita and describes someone who has done so as "a sage of stable mind."

Understanding and controlling this strong feeling can help someone grow and transform as well as prevent them from committing many aparadhas. if one regularly loses control of their fury or only occasionally does.

    To effectively control rage, take the following actions:-

  1. The right amount of sleep can stop uncalled-for angry outbursts. Adults need to sleep for at least seven hours every night, according to researchers. A person who has had trouble sleeping in the past will require more sleep to make up for it. Because of the many interruptions to their sleep at night brought on by frequent urination, GERD, OSA, RLS, other physical discomforts, changing diapers, and nursing infants, respectively, pregnant women and lactating moms may occasionally require more sleep than usual.
  2. Think of further interpretations: Consider the supporting evidence for your enraging interpretation. Think about diverse viewpoints.
  3. When an episode of fury starts, you breathe deeply, slowly, and with your diaphragm rather than your chest.
  4. Recognize that it's okay to be angry: You should be upset if you've been wronged, treated unfairly, or provoked. However, instead of acting aggressively, you should express your anger assertively.
  5. Relaxation methods like mindfulness, deep breathing, and progressive muscle relaxation, as well as lifestyle adjustments like healthier eating and sleeping patterns, reduce your amygdala's reaction to triggering.
  6. Cognitive behavioral therapy can help your prefrontal brain exercise its role in emotional regulation.
  7. Some persons who have diabetes may also struggle with rage issues. You may maintain stable blood sugar levels and maintain your composure by adhering to your diabetes treatment plan, which includes measuring your blood sugar levels, taking your medication, eating healthily, and exercising.
  8. Anger might also result from being irritable or exhausted. As a result, it's important to eat well and get enough rest to keep going.
  9. Mindfulness, spirituality, movement, chant, transcendence, progressive relaxation, loving-kindness, and imagery are all types of meditation.

Role of Mantra-Meditation in Anger management:- 

              Mantra meditation is one of the best meditation techniques for managing anger. Japa and Kirtan are the available kinds. Japa is a type of private meditation when you sit in a quiet place and calmly chant a mantra. Kirtan, on the other hand, is a form of group meditation in which people sing and perform musical instruments.

              Along with the mantra's right frequency for each person, the incorporation of faith in this meditation technique can have magical effects on the practitioner. The route to happiness, self-realization, and enlightenment can be successfully completed through mantra meditation, along with the attainment of a disease-free body, a tranquil mind, clear and coherent thinking, and an improvement in intelligence quotient.

              Mantras are powerful, but in order to reap their full rewards, one must recite them consistently and in their whole. When uttered from the heart, mantras drive away negative energy while bringing positive energy into the body and mind.

              Mantro Hinah swarato varnato va mithya prayukto na tamarthamah.

              Sa Vagvajro yajmanam hinasti yathendrashatruh swaratoparadhat.

              The meaning: The mantra without proper pronunciation of vowels and consonants that is the utterance of a mantra in a  faulty manner makes it faulty and does not convey the intended meaning.  Instead, it gets converted into a  verbal thunderbolt and may harm the one chanting it.

              As in the aforementioned verse, we can see that in order to properly use a mantra and receive the benefits that it is intended to provide for us, we must not do so carelessly or take them for granted.

              You may decide when and where to channel your tension and when and where to let it go with the help of a regular mantra meditation regimen.

              During this meditation exercise of consciousness, results are attained automatically rather than by mind control or other mental ploys. The deepest level of the inner Self outside of the mind is reached through meditation practice.

              Have an anger-free, happy and great day ahead!



              Psychology Today. (n.d.). Psychology Today Staff. https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/basics/anger

              Bertone, H. C. J. (2019, October 2). Which Type of Meditation Is Right for Me? Healthline. Retrieved September 21, 2022, from https://www.healthline.com/health/mental-health/types-of-meditation#What-meditation-is-all-about

              Bhagavad-gītā As It Is. (n.d.). Retrieved September 21, 2022, from https://vedabase.io/en/library/bg/

              Capobianco, A. (2018, August 14). Five Benefits of Mantra Meditation. Sacred Arts Research Foundation. Retrieved September 21, 2022, from https://www.sacredartsresearch.org/blog/2018/8/13/the-benefits-of-mantra-meditation

              Crider, C. (2020, May 28). Is Excessive Sleeping During Pregnancy a Problem? Healthline. Retrieved September 21, 2022, from https://www.healthline.com/health/pregnancy/excessive-sleeping-during-pregnancy#definition

              Diabetic Rage: Can Diabetes Cause Aggressive Behavior? | HealthyPlace. (2022, January 4). Retrieved September 21, 2022, from https://www.healthyplace.com/diabetes/mental-health/diabetic-rage-can-diabetes-cause-aggressive-behavior

              Evans, C. (2019, June 7). The science of anger. How It Works. Retrieved September 21, 2022, from https://www.howitworksdaily.com/the-science-of-anger/

              Evans, C. (2019, June 7). Inside your brain. How It Works. https://www.howitworksdaily.com/the-science-of-anger/

              Gayatri, P. (2021, January 10). Anger Management. ISKCON Seshadripuram Bengaluru - Sri Jagannath Mandir. Retrieved September 21, 2022, from https://www.iskconbangalore.co.in/anger-management/

              iskcon@dwarka. (2021, February 20). How Meditation Helps Manage Anger? Iskcon Dwarka. Retrieved September 21, 2022, from https://iskcondwarka.org/blogs/how-meditation-helps-manage-anger/

              Olsan, E. J. (2021, May 15). How many hours of sleep are enough for good health? Mayoclinic.org. https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/adult-health/expert-answers/how-many-hours-of-sleep-are-enough/faq-20057898

              Pacheco, D. (2022, April 5). Pregnancy and Sleep. Sleep Foundation. Retrieved September 21, 2022, from https://www.sleepfoundation.org/pregnancy

              Pandya, R. M. (2022, September 21). THE LEGEND OF ASHWATHAMA. Retrieved September 21, 2022, from https://pandyamasters.blogspot.com/2012/03/legend-of-ashwathama.html

              Penedo, F. J., Antoni, M. H., & Schneiderman, N. (2008, March). Anger Management / Mantra Meditation. Cognitive-Behavioral Stress Management for Prostate Cancer Recovery: Workbook, 99–114. https://doi.org/10.1093/med:psych/9780195336986.003.0008

              The science of anger. (n.d.). Anger Treatments. http://www.angertreatments.com/the-science-of-anger/

              Scientific Analysis of Mantra-Based Meditation and its Beneficial Effects: An Overview. (2017, June). Research Gate. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/318395933_Scientific_Analysis_of_Mantra-Based_Meditation_and_its_Beneficial_Effects_An_Overview

              Sharma, H. (2015, July 1). Meditation: Process and effects Sharma H - Ayu. Retrieved September 21, 2022, from https://www.ayujournal.org/text.asp?2015/36/3/233/182756

              Singal, V. (2021, September 6). Anger Management in Bhagavad Gita. The Pioneer. Retrieved September 21, 2022, from https://www.dailypioneer.com/2021/state-editions/anger-management-in-bhagavad-gita.html#:%7E:text=Those%20under%20the%20control%20of%20anger%20have%20been,leading%20to%20hell%20-%20lust%2C%20anger%20and%20greed.

              My Youtube Videos on Narcissism:-  

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              18 Sept 2022

              Visualisation Excercises for enhancing Optimism and overcoming fears.

              The word ‘optimism’ is derived from the Latin word ‘optimum,’ which means ‘the best.’

              Optimism is a personality type that exhibits resilience and inner strength. An excellent method for firmly implanting an optimistic mindset in your brain is visualisation.

              Individuals who have optimistic outlooks tend to live longer and recover more quickly from health setbacks. Only a little portion of a person's optimism is inherited. The environment and an individual's efforts shape the rest. 

              There are 2 visualization exercises that can be used to enhance optimism and reduce fears:-

              1.    Visualizing a Positive Outcome:-

              A 10 minute visualisation excercise can help increase optimism. Here is what to do in that excercise:-

              Imagine yourself in the most optimistic future you can imagine. Pick a certain future date, for example 5 or 10 years from now. In this imagine future, you've accomplished all the objectives you set for yourself, reached the pinnacle of your ideal profession, met your true love and soul mate, are in excellent physical condition, have reliable friends, you have become self-actualised etc. Imagine these thngs in as much detail as you can to make the scene vivid and realistic. . Clearly imagine what such a future will look like to you and what your feeling would be be when you achieve them. Focus on your location, the other people around youHow would you spend your time? 

              Think of oneself as competent, confident, and successful. Feel yourself in this future scenario as if you were present. In this visualisation, pretend that everything is going perfectly smoothly.

              You can have a diary where you can write these thoughts, scenarios and feelings, once a week, for six to eight minutes, for one or two months.

              Everyone struggles with it, and at first it could feel a little awkward. But with with regular practise, it will begin to feel more natural.

              Numerous studies reveal that visualising your perfect future might actually increase your levels of optimism, despite the fact that it may seem like wishful thinking.

              2.    Visualizing Your Fears Away

              Sit on a comfortable seat with your hands in your lap. Close your eyes and take slow, deep breaths from your lower abdomen. Use your nose to take in air, and your mouth to exhale it. Your exhalation should last longer than your inhalation. Spend 3 to 4 minutes doing this. Imagine yourself now breathing out  a green cloud of good energy that is directly in front of you. For a few breaths, continue doing this.

              Consider one of your irrational concerns or negative ideas that you wish to get rid of. Now visualize this fear as a yellow ball that is in front of you. As you breathe out breathe this positive green cloud over the negative yellow ball. Imagine this yellow ball getting smaller and smaller with each breath, then watch it move away from you. "I surrender this belief," tell yourself aloud. I agree that it is finished. I feel at peace.. Ultimately this yellow ball will eventually disappear.

              Take a few more breaths, then repeat the process, blowing the positive green cloud onto the yellow negative fear or belief. Next, choose another negative thought or the same one. Visualize a yellow ball that is dwindling in size and moving away from you. "I surrender this belief," say aloud to yourself. I agree that it is finished. I feel peaceful.

              For about 10 minutes, perform this exercise over and over again. It is possible to resove 3–4 difficulties in a single sitting. Now take afew mre long, deep breaths for a few minutes.

              At the end of the session you will see yourself as a self-assured and confident person. Think of yourself as someone who is free from these limiting thoughts and anxieties. Once you've finished visualizing then slowly open your eyes and get reacquainted back into your surroundings Stretch your arms out wide and raise your head high. Accept the confidence you now possess!


              Best Possible Self: Visualization Exercise (Worksheet). (n.d.). Therapist Aid. Retrieved October 10, 2022, from https://www.therapistaid.com/therapy-worksheet/best-possible-self

              Chowdhury, R. B. M. A. (2022, September 12). 11 Optimism Exercises & Theories (Incl. Learned Optimism). PositivePsychology.com. Retrieved October 10, 2022, from https://positivepsychology.com/optimism-tools-exercises-examples/

              Dholakia, U. (2016, August 14). A Simple Exercise to Boost Optimism (And Improve Health). Psychology Today. https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/the-science-behind-behavior/201608/simple-exercise-boost-optimism-and-improve-health

              Imagine Your Best Possible Self Practice and Exercise. (n.d.). Retrieved October 10, 2022, from https://www.centreforoptimism.com/Your-Best-Possible-Self

              Visualizations. (2020, April 3). Optimistic Brain. Retrieved October 10, 2022, from https://optimisticbrain.com/stuff-to-read/visualizing/

              My Youtube Videos on Narcissism:-  

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              How to Spot a Narcissist?

              In today's society, the term "narcissistic" has essentially come to mean being arrogant. But narcissism is much more complex than that; it can take many different forms, from an overly large ego to psychopathic grandiosity. However, narcissism is fundamentally a mask for a persistent shame that you might not even be conscious of.

              A narcissistic personality disorder can cause problems in a variety of spheres of life, including relationships, career, education, and financial affairs. People with a narcissistic personality disorder may generally feel dissatisfied and upset when they don't get the specific treatment or admiration they believe they deserve. Others might not like being around them, and their relationships with them could not be satisfying.

              1. Discover 10 typical narcissistic characteristics by reading on-
              2. They place an excessive amount of focus on themselves.
              3. They attempt to enforce superiority
              4. They prefer to hang out with individuals of high social standing.
              5. They frequently have grandiose fantasies about their own greatness, fortune, and beauty.
              6. They are preoccupied with the desire for being admired.
              7. They minimize others and control conversations.
              8. Are entitled to special consideration
              9. They exaggerate one's abilities and accomplishments.
              10. They seek irrational special treatment to satisfy their inflated sense of importance.
              11. They lack empathy and are prepared to put others before themselves in order to obtain the finest outcomes they believe they are entitled.

              This behavior is frequently the result of neglect or abuse throughout childhood. These people have a high level of sensitivity. They act narcissistically to protect themselves from inferiority complexes. They alternately feel superior to and inferior to others, but they nevertheless become angry or afraid when they are not treated as exceptional.

              The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders' most recent version contains specific criteria for diagnosing narcissistic personality disorder (DSM-5). Diagnosis criteria include at least five of these nine symptoms of narcissistic personality disorder:

              1. Grandiosity and self-importance
              2. Delusions of power, perfection, or success
              3. A firm belief in one's own specialness and individuality 
              4. A desire for adoration and praise 
              5. Entitlement 
              6. A tendency to take advantage of people for one's own gain 
              7. Low empathy
              8. Envy, jealousy, and distrust
              9. Arrogance, haughtiness, and disdain

              These narcissistic personality characteristics must be persistent over time and manifest in the majority of areas of life in order to meet diagnosis criteria.


              1. 10 signs you might be a narcissist. (2020, February 3). Health. Retrieved september 18, 2022, from https://www.health.com/mind-body/10-signs-you-might-be-a-narcissist
              2. Narcissism: symptoms and signs. (2020, December 3). Webmd. Retrieved september 18, 2022, from https://www.webmd.com/mental-health/narcissism-symptoms-signs
              3. Narcissistic personality disorder - symptoms and causes. (2017, November 18). Mayo clinic. Retrieved september 18, 2022, from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/narcissistic-personality-disorder/symptoms-causes/syc-20366662
              4. Raypole, c. (2021, April 6). Narcissistic personality disorder: symptoms and traits. Psych central. Retrieved september 18, 2022, from https://psychcentral.com/disorders/narcissistic-personality-disorder/symptoms#narcissism-diagnosis

              My Youtube Videos on Narcissism:-  

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              5 Types of Narcissism

              When people talk about narcissism, they might be referring to it either as a part of someone’s personality or as narcissistic personality disorder (NPD).

              A narcissistic personality disorder is a formal mental health diagnosis, and there’s only one type. This condition is usually diagnosed when narcissism extends beyond a personality trait and persistently affects many areas of your life. There are 9 symptoms of a narcissistic personality.

              However, narcissism can manifest itself in a variety of ways in a person's personality, including in individuals who have the formal diagnosis and which is what we'll be discussing in this article.

              Five types of narcissism are:-

              1. Overt narcissism
              2. Covert narcissism
              3. Antagonistic narcissism
              4. Communal narcissism
              5. Malignant narcissism

              1)   Agentic or overt narcissism:- It is grandiose and aggressive.  Agentic or overtly narcissistic people are extroverts, arrogant, entitled, bossy, have an inflated sense of self-worth, need the spotlight, are exploitative, competitive, and lack empathy. It is simple to identify overt narcissists in a crowd. They are overtly self-centered, frequently boasting, belittling people in front of others, and flaunting their wealth and connections. The reasons for these people's actions can be difficult to comprehend, but it's crucial to keep in mind that the character they present to the outside world is a product of generations' worth of suffering.

              2)    Covert or Vulnerable or Closet narcissism:-These narcissists have low self-esteem and may struggle with anxiety, sadness, and other mental illnesses including shame. They exhibit defensiveness, avoidance, low self-confidence, introversion, and a victim mentality. The covert narcissist exhibits the general narcissistic features of being pompous and self-absorbed as well as being hostile, hostile, anxious, and moody or bitter. They may come out as extremely sensitive to criticism, reserved, nervous, depressed, envious, and/or lacking in self-esteem when compared to the overt narcissist.

              3)    Antagonistic narcissism:- This is a sub-type of overt narcissism. Aggression, hostility, and manipulative behavior are traits of antagonistic narcissists. They frequently manipulate others to achieve their goals and have no qualms about taking advantage of others. They are also very competitive and constantly demand attention. Narcissists who are hostile to others can cause a lot of harm to both themselves and those around them. Emotional and physical abuse is common among those with antagonistic narcissism. They utilize their position and power to make life unpleasant for others around them, and they find enormous delight in their victims' suffering.

              4)    Communal Narcissism:-  A type of narcissism that manifests in social contexts is called communal narcissism. It is characterized by an exaggerated sense of significance and a desire for other people's admiration. People that exhibit communal narcissism frequently look for leadership roles and other areas of influence within their groups. It is a form of overt narcissism but the opposite of antagonist narcissism. People who have communal narcissism are easily morally outraged, portray themselves as compassionate and giving, and respond incorrectly to unfair things. However, they do all of this for social power and self-importance and do not practice what they preach.

              5)    Malignant Narcissism:- Malignant narcissism is the name given to a particular, less frequent manifestation of narcissistic personality disorder. According to some specialists, this form of narcissism is the most severe. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition does not list it as a formal diagnosis. However, this word has been adopted by many psychologists and mental health professionals to refer to a certain collection of personality features. Malignant narcissism, according to Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, combines traits of Aggression and sadism, either against others or oneself, or both, symptoms of narcissistic personality disorder (NPD), symptoms of antisocial personality disorder (APD), and paranoia.

              It's critical to remember that these classifications are broad generalizations, and not all narcissists will fall neatly into a single category. There are always grey areas in life, and narcissists can exhibit traits of many types.

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              Communal Narcissism: Meaning, Signs, Causes And Treatment. (2022, July 4). Mantra Care. Retrieved September 18, 2022, from https://mantracare.org/therapy/narcissistic/communal-narcissism/

              DiNuzzo, E. (2021, May 28). Is There a Covert Narcissist in Your Life? 18 Things Therapists Need You to Know. The Healthy. Retrieved September 18, 2022, from https://www.thehealthy.com/family/relationships/covert-narcissist/

              [Dr. Judy]. (2020, March 27). Overt Narcissism. Dr. Judy Psychological Healing Center. Retrieved September 18, 2022, from https://psychologicalhealingcenter.com/overt-narcissism/

              Ledger, L. (2022, April 9). Antagonistic Narcissism: The Dark Side of Overt Narcissism. Medium. Retrieved September 18, 2022, from https://medium.com/brochanon/antagonistic-narcissism-the-dark-side-of-overt-narcissism-bfc 090930789 

              Mason, M. (2020, May 15). The 10 Types of Narcissists, Causes & Warning Signs. Pathways Family Coaching. Retrieved September 18, 2022, from https://pathwaysfamilycoaching.com/types-of-narcissists/

              Raypole, C. (2019, June 27). Unpacking Malignant Narcissism. Healthline. Retrieved September 18, 2022, from https://www.healthline.com/health/malignant-narcissism

              Telloian, C. (2021, September 15). 5 Types of Narcissism and How to Spot Each. Psych Central. Retrieved September 18, 2022, from https://psychcentral.com/health/types-of-narcissism

              My Youtube Videos on Narcissism:-  

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              17 Sept 2022

              How Narcissistic Personality Is Formed: 3Things That Turn Children into Narcissists

              According to clinical psychologist and Narcissism expert Dr. Ramani Durvasula, in their formative years, narcissistic individuals understood that people should not be trusted. This is why they have spent their entire lives hiding behind a false ego believing that if they form significant ties or attachments with individuals and open their hearts in the relationship, they would be hurt or harmed in some way


              Narcissistic Personality Disorder May result from a combination of three factors:-Neurobiology Genetics and environment.

              1)Neurobiology: The insular cortex is a region of the human brain that is thought to be the seat of compassion and empathy. The insular cortex is located deep within the cerebral cortex, an area consisting of folded grey matter (brain wiring) that plays a significant role in conscious awareness. Various studies have found anomalies in specific brain areas, including the insular cortex.

              According to Dr. Ropke, the volume of grey brain matter in the insular cortex is associated with empathy. NPD patients have structural deficits in this area.

              In a study conducted by Universitätsmedizin Berlin, researchers used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) equipment to test their hypothesis that narcissists' grey matter is incorrect. 

              To conduct the experiment, the scientists examined the brains of 34 patients, 17 of whom were known to have NPD and 17 who were not. Their observations were remarkable. Their cerebral cortex (the thinking and reasoning area of the brain) was also abnormal, in addition to their anterior insula and white matter. According to their findings, all of these structures are involved in the processing and creation of compassion for others.

              2)Genetics:- Several studies have revealed that the factors that cause NPD are present on genes as well, and hence they can be inherited and passed down from generation to generation with varied intensity.

              3)Childhood Environment:- Overly critical, neglectful, or indulgent parenting, or a combination of the three, may result in the development of NPD in a genetically vulnerable child.

              Childhood environmental factors are parents or early caregivers with characteristic features such as:

              • Overemphasis on innate ability rather than effort
              • Expectations that are unrealistic
              • Two parents' conflicting discipline reinforcement
              • Neglect and invalidation of emotions 
              • Motivation through comparison
              • Victim mindset

              These factors, as well as others such as early trauma, might cause NPD to develop in those with a genetic predisposition.

              Note: The material contents of this article are provided for educational purposes only and should not be used in place of professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment.


              Davis, S., & Davis, S. (2020a, June 22). The Neuroscience of Narcissism and Narcissistic Abuse | CPTSDfoundation.org. Retrieved September 17, 2022, from https://cptsdfoundation.org/2020/06/22/the-neuroscience-of-narcissism-and-narcissistic-abuse/

              Davis, S., & Davis, S. (2020b, June 22). The Neuroscience of Narcissism and Narcissistic Abuse | CPTSDfoundation.org. Retrieved September 17, 2022, from https://cptsdfoundation.org/2020/06/22/the-neuroscience-of-narcissism-and-narcissistic-abuse/

              Durvasula, R. [Med C. (2022, February 28). The 6 Causes of Narcissism | MedCircle x Dr Ramani [Video]. YouTube. Retrieved September 17, 2022, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cyF0Oeamih8&feature=youtu.be

              Insular Cortex. (2020, October 31). Neura. https://library.neura.edu.au/schizophrenia/physical-features/brain-regions/insular-cortex/

              Narcissism: 5 Causes of Narcissistic Personality Disorder. (2018, July 26). Exploring Your Mind. Retrieved September 17, 2022, from https://exploringyourmind.com/narcissism-5-causes-of-narcissistic-personality-disorder/

              Narcissistic personality disorder - Symptoms and causes. (2017, November 18). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved September 17, 2022, from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/narcissistic-personality-disorder/symptoms-causes/syc-20366662

              Pedersen, T. (2021, March 29). What Causes Narcissistic Personality Disorder? Psych Central. Retrieved September 17, 2022, from https://psychcentral.com/disorders/what-causes-narcissistic-personality-disorder#genetics

              Schulze, L., Dziobek, I., Vater, A., Heekeren, H. R., Bajbouj, M., Renneberg, B., Heuser, I., & Roepke, S. (2013, October). Gray matter abnormalities in patients with narcissistic personality disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 47(10), 1363–1369. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2013.05.017

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